The register of the population – the named and regularly staticized list of residents of the country. The program of supervision is limited to the general signs, such as a floor, a birth date and birth place, date of marriage (these data remain invariable during the entire period of supervision) and a marriage state (a variable sign). As a rule, registers store information only on those variable signs which change of values is documentary issued.
The reporting as a form of statistical supervision is based on primary account and is its generalization. Primary account represents the registration of various facts, events made in process of their commission, as a rule, on the special document called by primary registration document.
For research of the social and economic phenomena and processes of public life it is necessary to collect first of all about them necessary data – statistical data. Understand set of quantitative characteristics of the social and economic phenomena and processes received as a result of statistical supervision, their processing or the corresponding calculations as statistical data (information).
Collected data at a stage of their preparation for the automated processing are exposed to arithmetic and logical control. Both of these controls are based on knowledge of interrelations between indicators and qualitative signs. At the final stage supervision are analyzed at-chnny which led to incorrect filling of statistical forms, and supervision suggestions for improvement are developed. It is very important for the organization of future inspections.
The problem of supervision predetermines its program and forms of the organization. Not clearly the goal can lead to that in process, supervision will be collected unnecessary data or, on the contrary, the data necessary for the analysis will not be received.
Census is the specially organized observation repeating, as a rule, at regular intervals for the purpose of data acquisition about the number, structure and a condition of object of statistical supervision on a number of signs.
The documentary way of supervision is based on use as a source of different statistical information of documents, as a rule, of registration character. At appropriate control of statement of primary account and the correct filling of statistical lists the documentary way yields the most exact results.
Register form of supervision. Register supervision is a form of continuous statistical supervision over the long-term processes having the fixed beginning, a stage of development and the fixed end. It is based on maintaining the statistical register. The register represents the system which is constantly watching a condition of a sampling unit and estimating force of impact of various factors on the studied indicators. In the register each sampling unit is characterized by set of indicators. One of them remain invariable during the whole time of supervision and are registered once; other indicators which frequency of change is unknown, are updated in process of change; the third – represent dynamic ranks of indicators with in advance known period of updating. All indicators are stored before full completion of supervision over unit of the surveyed set.
Statistical supervision is mass, systematic, scientific organized observation behind the phenomena of social and economic life which consists in registration of the selected signs at each unit of population.
The program has to contain the essential signs which are directly characterizing the studied phenomenon, its type, the main lines, properties. It is not necessary to include in the program the signs which are of secondary importance in relation to the purpose of inspection or which value will be obviously doubtful or to be absent, for example, in primary account or at disinterest of reporting units in submission of such information as it is a subject of a trade secret.
It should be noted that the register of the population as any register covering supervision considerable set of units contains data on limited number of signs. Therefore maintaining the register assumes carrying out specially organized inspections, including population censuses.